JKX Oil & Gas plc Annual Report 201195At a glance01-17Board statements18-23Operational review24-36Financial review37-47CSR review48-61Directors' reports62-83Financial statements84-136institutions, which are readily convertible to known amounts of cash. Cash equivalents are short-term with an original maturity of less than 3 months, highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.Restricted cashRestricted cash is disclosed separately on the face of the statement of financial position and denoted as restricted when it is not under the exclusive control of the Group.Trade and other payablesTrade and other payables are initially measured at fair value, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method if the time value of money is significant.Financial liabilities and equityFinancial liabilities and equity instruments are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into. An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Group after deducting all of its liabilities. Equity instruments issued by the Company are recorded at the proceeds received net of direct issue costs.InventoriesInventory is comprised of produced oil and gas or certain materials and equipment that are acquired for future use. The oil and gas is valued at the lower of average production cost and net realisable value; the materials and equipment inventory is valued at purchase cost. Cost comprises direct materials and, where applicable, direct labour costs plus attributable overheads based on a normal level of activity and other costs associated in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is calculated using the weighted average method. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price less all estimated costs of completion and costs to be incurred in marketing, selling and distribution and any provisions for obsolescence.Treasury sharesJKX Oil & Gas plc treasury shares held by the Company are classified in shareholders' equity. The consideration paid, including any directly attributable incremental costs is deducted from equity attributable to the Company's equity holders until the shares are cancelled or reissued. Where such shares are subsequently sold or reissued, any consideration received, net of transaction costs, is included in equity attributable to the Company's equity holders. No gain or loss is recognised in the financial statements on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of treasury shares.TaxationIncome tax expense represents the sum of the current tax payable and deferred tax.The current tax payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in the income statement because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Group's liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.Deferred tax is the tax expected to be payable or recoverable on differences between the carrying amount of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax base used in the computation of taxable profit. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the tax profit nor the accounting profit. Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiaries, and interests in joint ventures, except where the Group is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each reporting date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered. Any such reduction shall be reversed to the extent that it becomes probable that sufficient taxable profit will be available.Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the liability is settled or the asset realised based on tax rates and laws substantively enacted by the reporting date. Deferred tax is charged or credited in the income statement, except when it relates to items charged or credited directly to equity, in which case the deferred tax is also dealt with in equity.Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there exists a legal and enforceable right to offset and they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Group intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.
96Group financial statementsNotes to the financial statements continuedSegmental reporting Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the Chief Operating Decision Maker. The Chief Operating Decision Maker, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the Executive and Non-Executive Directors of the Group that make the strategic decisions. Share optionsThe Group issues equity-settled share-based payments to the Executive Directors and Senior Management. Equity-settled share-based payments are measured at fair value at the date of grant. The fair value of the employee services received in exchange for the grant of options is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Group's estimate of shares that will eventually vest. At each subsequent reporting date the Group calculates the estimated cumulative charge for each award having regard to any change in the number of options that are expected to vest and the expired portion of the vesting period. The change in this cumulative charge since the last reporting date is expensed. Once an option vests, no further adjustment is made to the aggregate amount expensed. The expected life of the options depends on the behaviour of the option holders, which is incorporated into the option model consistent with historic data. The fair values calculated are inherently subjective and uncertain due to the assumptions made and the limitations of the model used.The proceeds received net of any directly attributable transaction costs are credited to share capital (nominal value of 10p per share) and share premium when the options are exercised.The rules regarding the scheme are described in the Remuneration Report on pages 74 and 83 and in note 24 on share based payments.Bonus schemeThe Group operates a bonus scheme for its Directors and employees. The scheme has four performance conditions: 1. financial objectives; 2. increase in share price; 3. key strategic objectives and 4. safety performance conditions. The bonus payments are made annually, normally in January of each year and the costs are accrued in the period to which they relate.Pension costsThe Group contributes to the individual pension scheme of the qualifying employees' choice. Contri-butions are charged to the income statement as they become payable. The Group has no further payment obligations once the contributions have been paid.DecommissioningProvision is made for the cost of decommissioning assets at the time when the obligation to decommission arises. Such provision represents the estimated discounted liability (the discount rate used currently being at 10%, (2010: 10%)) for costs which are expected to be incurred in removing production facilities and site restoration at the end of the producing life of each field. A corresponding item of property plant and equipment is also created at an amount equal to the provision. This is subsequently depreciated as part of the capital costs of the production facilities. Any change in the present value of the estimated expenditure attributable to changes in the estimates of the cash flow or the current estimate of the discount rate used are reflected as an adjustment to the provision and the property plant and equipment. The unwinding of the discount is recognised as a finance cost.Revenue recognitionSales of oil and gas products are recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have passed to the buyer and it can be reliably measured. This generally occurs when the product is physically transferred into a vessel, pipe or other delivery mechanism. Revenue from other services are recognised when the services have been performed. Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received, excluding discounts, rebates, value added tax ('VAT') and other sales taxes or duty.Revenue resulting from the production of oil and natural gas from properties in which the Group has an interest with other producers is recognised on the basis of the Group's working interest (entitlement method). Gains and losses on derivative contracts are reported on a net basis in the consolidated income statement. Interest income is recognised as the interest accrues, by reference to the net carrying amount at the effective interest rate applicable.Share capitalOrdinary shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of ordinary shares are recognised as a deduction from share premium, net of any tax effects. When share capital recognised as equity is repurchased, the amount of the consideration paid, which includes directly attributable costs, net of any tax effects, is recognised as a deduction from share premium. Repurchased shares are classified as treasury shares and are presented in the reserve for own shares. When treasury shares are sold or reissued subsequently, the amount received is recognised as an increase in equity, and the resulting surplus or deficit on the transaction is presented in share premium.